During 1900, the “Color or Race” question was slightly modified, removing the term “Mulatto”. Also, there was an inclusion of an “Indian Population Schedule” in which “enumerators were instructed to use a special expanded questionnaire for American Indians living on reservations or in family groups off of reservations.” This expanded version included the question “Fraction of person’s lineage that is white.” In the 1830 census, a new question which stated “The number of White persons who were foreigners not naturalized” was included. The 1820 census built on the questions asked in 1810 by asking age questions about slaves.

Many Mestizos identify with their American Indian ancestry while others tend to self-identify with their European ancestry, others still celebrate both. The Northeast megalopolis, extending from Northern Virginia to north of Boston is home to a population of 257,729 Guatemalans. Cities such as Langley Park, Maryland, Trenton, New Jersey, Stamford, Connecticut, Providence, Rhode Island, and Lynn, Massachusetts have significant concentrations of Guatemalans along the corridor. Half of the Guatemalan population is situated in two parts of the country, the Northeast and Southern California.

Hatgis et al. found that participants with personal histories of addiction were less likely to believe that people are personally responsible for substance abuse problems. Such findings suggest a need to examine whether commonly held attributions about addiction differ based on substance use frequency and type of substance among adult Latinas, and the potential moderating role of substance use frequency on relations between cultural and socioeconomic variables and attributions about addiction among adult Latinas. Decades of research have established links between socioeconomic variables and substance use among U.S.

Puerto Ricans migrated in search of higher-wage jobs, first to New York City, and later to other cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston. The absolute increase in the size of the Puerto Rican population of the New York metropolitan area between 2010 and 2016 roughly approximates the total Puerto Rican population of the Orlando Metropolitan Area, which enumerated over 320,000 in 2013. The Puerto Rican populations of the Orlando and Philadelphia metropolitan areas approximate each other in following a distant second and third only to the New York metropolitan area in size. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the United States since the 19th century and migrating since and have a long history of collective social advocacy for their political and social rights and preserving their cultural heritage. In New York City, which has the largest concentration of Puerto Ricans in the United States, they began running for elective office in the 1920s, electing one of their own to the New York State Assembly for the first time in 1937.

Between the 1950s and the 1980s, large numbers of Puerto Ricans migrated to New York, especially to Brooklyn, The Bronx and the Spanish Harlem and Loisaida neighborhoods of Manhattan. In 1960, the number of stateside Puerto Ricans living in New York City as a whole was 88%, with most (69%) living in East Harlem. They helped others settle, find work, and build communities by relying on social networks containing friends and family. http://nuestroclima.net/the-nice-the-bad-and-women-of-costa-rica/ New York City neighborhoods such as East Harlem in Upper Manhattan, the South Bronx and Bushwick in Brooklyn are often the most associated with the stateside Puerto Rican population. However, several neighborhoods in eastern North Philadelphia, especially Fairhill, have some of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in the United States, Fairhill having the highest when being compared to other big city neighborhoods.

Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Puerto Rican relative to the state/territory” population as a whole. This low level of electoral participation is in sharp contrast with voting levels in Puerto Rico, which are much higher than that not only of this community, but also the United States as a whole. The Puerto Rican community has organized itself to represent its interests in stateside political institutions for close to a century.

50 Ways to Fight Bias Bias makes it harder for women to get hired and promoted. 50 Ways to Fight Bias is a card-based activity and video series that highlights 50 specific examples of gender bias in the workplace and offers research-backed recommendations for what to do. That means Latinas had to work all of 2018 and until this day in 2019 to catch up with what white men were paid in 2018 alone. No matter what their job, where they live, or how much education or experience they have, Latinas are still paid less than white men.1 Get the facts about the pay gap and its impact on Latinas and their families. In Lean In, Sheryl Sandberg shares her personal stories, uses research to shine a light on gender differences, and offers practical advice to help women achieve their goals.

The non-Latina assessor was Haitian-American and conducted interviews with English-speaking participants. Eight interviewers were master’s-level graduate students, and three were bachelor’s-level students. Interviewer training and supervision included more than four hours of didactic instruction using a training manual to teach interviewers about each of the measures used in the study. Interviewers received intensive supervision by the study director to ensure data quality.

Many other towns in southern Colorado have high proportions of Mexican-Americans. La Junta, Rocky Ford, Las Animas, Lamar, Walsenburg, and Trinidad all have large Mexican American communities.San Luis Valley – The San Luis Valley has many towns with large Mexican-American populations. Antonito, Blanca, Center, Del Norte, Fort Garland, Monte Vista, and Romeo are all Latino majority. Greeley, Colorado – Over one-third of the city’s population is Latino, mostly Mexican-American.Garden City is Latino majority, and Evans has a very large Latino population as well. Harlingen, Texas – The Latino population of Harlingen is 72% due to its proximity to the Rio Grande Mexico border.

Rock band The Mars Volta combines elements of progressive rock with traditional Mexican folk music and Latin rhythms along with Cedric Bixler-Zavala’s Spanglish lyrics. Given this representation in early Chicano literature, Bruce-Novoa concludes, “we can say our community is less sexually repressive than we might expect.”

South Gate, California – over 70.77% of the population is Mexican or Mexican American. Long Beach, California – Third largest city in Southern California, One of many cities in the region with a large Mexican/Hispanic population. The diffusion model has also been suggested as a way of describing the immigrant’s experience within the United States. This model is rooted in the belief that as time passes, more and more immigrants enter the country.

English And Spanish Language Proficiency, Nativity, And Attributions About Addiction

The National Household Surveys on Substance Abuse have revealed that Latino illicit drug use rates have increased steadily since 2002 [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration , 2008]. Moreover, compared to other U.S. ethnic groups, Latinos experience disproportionately negative consequences of substance abuse, such as intimate partner violence, incarceration, homelessness, HIV/AIDS, and other medical consequences (Amaro, Arévalo, Gonzalez, Szapocznik, & Iguchi, 2006). Furthermore, a lack of culturally tailored substance abuse interventions often lead Latino clients to perceive culturally insensitive barriers to treatment delivery (Gil & Vega, 2001), and to drop out of drug abuse treatment in greater numbers than individuals from other ethnic groups (Hser, Huang, Teruya, & Anglin, 2004). The substance use problems experienced by Latinos therefore often go untreated. Thus, social work practitioners and researchers are encouraged to better understand the treatment needs of Latinos in the U.S. (Alvarez, Jason, Olson, Ferrari, & Davis, 2007).

While nativity did not directly relate with attributions, women who reported marijuana use endorsed more spiritual attributions when they were foreign born than when they were born in the U.S. All consenting study participants were administered a single, face-to-face interview guided by a structured questionnaire, which included the instruments used in the current study. The majority of interviews occurred in participants’ homes (69%) or at researchers’ university offices (19%). Interviews were conducted in either Spanish (65%) or English (35%) by eleven trained and supervised female assessors. All but one of the assessors self-identified as Latina and were bilingual in English and Spanish.